Working Paper

Cross-Border and Foreign-Affiliate Sales of Services: Evidence From German Micro-Data


  • Kelle
  • M.
  • Kleinert
  • J.
  • Raff
  • H.
  • Toubal
  • F.
Publication Date

We merge German balance-of-payments and foreign-affiliate-trade statistics to obtain data about trade in commercial services at the firm level. We use these data to study export market participation and the choice of export mode: cross-border versus foreign affiliate sales. We find that for firms in our sample productivity is both a statistically significant and economically important determinant of the export participation and export mode choice. We also identify the role of industry- and country-specific determinants.


JEL Classification
F12, F15, L13

Key Words

  • ausländische Direktinvestitionen
  • commercial presence
  • Dienstleistungshandel
  • firm heterogeneity
  • foreign direct investment
  • international trade
  • Internationaler Handel
  • multinational enterprises
  • supply modes
  • trade in services