Journal Article

Positive peace, negative peace: How norms relate to different dimensions of peace


  • Bayerlein
  • M.
  • Kamin
  • K.
  • Krahmann
  • E.
Publication Date

Norms play a pivotal role in fostering peace. Yet, there is a dearth of comparative empirical studies testing which norms exhibit the strongest connection. Moreover, peace is usually only measured in terms of the absence of violent conflict, neglecting its positive dimensions. This article uses fresh data from the World Values Survey to assess how different norms correlate with negative and positive measures of peace. It confirms that societal endorsement of democracy, tolerance, and gender equality significantly correlate with reduced violent conflict. However, only gender equality also correlates with interpersonal trust as a key indicator of positive peace.

Kiel Institute Expert


JEL Classification
D7, F5, P00

Key Words

  • Norms
  • Peace
  • Conflict

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