A Database of Military, Financial and Humanitarian Aid to Ukraine
The Ukraine Support Tracker lists and quantifies military, financial and humanitarian aid promised by governments to Ukraine between January 24, 2022 (the day some NATO countries put their troops on alter) and currently through May 10, 2022. Since the update on May 18, 2022 it covers 37 countries, specifically the EU member states, other members of the G7, as well as Australia, South Korea, Turkey, Norway, New Zealand, and Switzerland. The database is intended to support a facts-based discussion about support to Ukraine.
We focus on government-to-government transfers into Ukraine. Due to a lack of comparable and reliable data, we do not quantify private donations or transfers by international organizations like the Red Cross. For more details see below.
+++ Next scheduled update: June 7, 2022 +++
Update May 18, 2022: data since January 24 and through May 10
The U.S. has more than tripled its publicly known commitments to Ukraine since the previous Ukraine Support Tracker data update on April 23. The reason is the second Ukraine Supplemental Act, which has passed the U.S. House of Representatives and is currently up for a vote in the Senate. In total, the U.S. has now announced 43 billion euros in bilateral military, financial or humanitarian support between January 24 and May 10, 2022. In contrast, EU countries have made only comparatively small new commitments in recent weeks.
"The U.S. government is willing to mobilize substantial resources to strengthen Ukraine. This shows the importance it attaches to this conflict, which threatens the stability of Europe," says Christoph Trebesch, research director at Kiel Institute and responsible for the Ukraine Support Tracker. "EU countries and EU institutions have committed 16 billion euros, only about one-third of what the U.S. has pledged. This large discrepancy is surprising. One might expect the EU to help a neighboring country at least to a similar level as the distant United States. But EU countries have been moving much more slowly for weeks, not only in arms deliveries, but also in financial and humanitarian assistance."
In relation to their economic output (gross domestic product, GDP), Estonia, Latvia and Poland remain Ukraine's biggest supporters - now followed by the U.S. in fourth place. Germany ranks 14th with pledges amounting to 0.06 percent of GDP, its lowest ranking so far compared to March and April.
A new addition with this update is a quantification of government support to refugees. "Rightly, some countries point to the high cost of hosting refugees from Ukraine. However, these expenditures are very difficult to measure and to compare internationally. Nevertheless, we attempt to do so on the basis of rough estimates. According to these, Poland, Romania and Hungary bear the greatest burdens. The cost of refugees in Poland alone could be between two and six billion euros in the period we consider, depending on the cost per month and refugee. Assuming a figure of 500 euros per month per refugee, Poland is Ukraine's second-largest supporter in absolute terms behind the United States," says Trebesch.
Total bilateral aid commitments to Ukraine across the twelve largest donors in billion Euros. Each bar besides illustrates the type of assistance, meaning financial assistance (loans, grants, and swap lines), humanitarian aid (assistance directed to the civilian population including food and medical items), and military assistance (arms, equipment, and utilities provided to the Ukrainian military). Military aid includes direct financial assistance that is tied to military purposes.
Ranking of countries by the scale of bilateral aid as percentage share of each donor’s GDP. The data on GDP (current US$) is for 2020 and taken from the World Bank.
Ranking of donors that have offered military aid in the form of weapons and equipment and financial aid with military purpose to Ukraine (bilateral disclosed military commitments only).
Sum of commitments to Ukraine in billion Euros, divided into the three covered time periods of the respective publication. The EU commitments include bilateral commitments by all 27 EU member country governments countries, plus commitments of the EU institutions, so the Commission and Council and the European Investment Bank.
Ranking of countries by the scale of bilateral aid and assistance to refugees inside the donor country, as percentage share of each donor’s GDP. The total refugee cost is based on a rough estimation assuming 500 Euro per refugee and month. The data on GDP (current US$) is for 2020 and taken from the World Bank.
About the Ukraine Support Tracker
A main aim of this database to quantify the scale of aid to Ukraine and to make the support measures comparable across donor countries. Much of the discussion on aid to Ukraine since the beginning of the war has been anecdotal, while a rigorous quantification has been missing. Our aim is to quantify the support flows by Western governments to Ukraine in millions of Euros, accounting for both financial and in-kind transfers. To do so, we set up a comprehensive database that brings together information from official, government sources, existing lists of Ukraine aid, and reports by renown news media.
An important challenge is to quantify non-financial transfers, such as in-kind shipments of military equipment, weapons, medicines or foodstuff. In many cases, governments report the value of their in-kind donations in their national currency, so that we can use that number as the baseline value. In other cases, however, governments do not report the value of aid, but only mention the items supplied, e.g., specific weapons or several “tons of foodstuff”. To value these, we draw on a broad range of sources to identify market prices, choosing an upper bound, when possible, e.g., by using the new purchase price even if much of the military equipment is probably used.
The Ukraine Support Tracker lists and quantifies military, financial, and humanitarian aid pledged to Ukraine since January 24, 2022. Since the update on May 18, 2022 it covers 37 countries, specifically the EU member states, other members of the G7, as well as the newly added countries of Australia, South Korea, Turkey, Norway, New Zealand, and Switzerland. Also, EU institutions are included as a separate donor. The tracker lists government-to-government commitments; private donations or those from international organizations such as the IMF are not included in the main database. Flows going into other countries like, for example, Moldova, are not included. The database does not include other types of support, in particular donations by private individuals, companies, churches, or non-governmental organizations. We have also not (yet) systematically collected support by international organizations like the Red Cross or the United Nations, mainly because a lack of systematic data and reporting by most such international organizations.