Journal Article

Trends of National and Sub-national Burden Attributed to Kidney Dysfunction Risk Factor in Iran: 1990 to 2019


  • Nejadghaderi
  • S.A.
  • Saeedi Moghaddam
  • S.
  • Keykhaei
  • M.
  • Shobeiri
  • P.
  • Rezaei
  • N.
  • Rezaei
  • N.
  • Naghavi
  • M.
  • Larijani
  • B.
  • Farzadfar
  • F.
Publication Date

Background: Kidney dysfunction is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. Herein, we aimed to describe the attributable burden of kidney dysfunction at the national and sub-national levels in Iran.

Methods: The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 data were extracted on the deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life lost, and years lived with disability attributed to the risk factor of kidney dysfunction by age and sex at the national and provincial levels from 1990-2019. Also, risk exposure was reported by summary exposure value (SEV) with a range of 0 to 100. The estimated values were based on a comparative risk assessment framework.

Results: In 2019, the age-standardized death rate and age-standardized DALYs rate attributable to kidney dysfunction were 58.2 (95% uncertainty interval of 48.8-68.1) and 1127.2 (981.1-1282.7) per 100,000 population in Iran, respectively. Also, the Sistan and Baluchistan province (1729.3 [1478.3-2006.4]) and the province of Tehran (681.9 [571.4-809.8]) had the greatest and lowest age-standardized DALYs rates, respectively. Nationally, SEVs increased from 22.8 to 26.2. The age-standardized burden attributable to kidney dysfunction had a positive association with age advancement. The attributable age-standardized deaths and DALYs rates in all socio-demographic index regions decreased from 1990-2019. Also, the highest and lowest attributable age-standardized DALYs rates of kidney dysfunction came from ischemic heart disease and peripheral artery disease in 2019, respectively.

Conclusion: Although the attributed age-standardized DALYs and death rates decreased from 1990-2019, risk exposure increased and remains a crucial risk factor in Iran. Therefore, policymakers should consider preparing a preventive program that takes into account different levels of prevention of kidney dysfunction.

Kiel Institute Expert

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