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Cumulative COVID-19 restrictions and the global maritime network


  • Heiland
  • I.
  • Ulltveit-Moe
  • K.-H.
Publication Date

The world’s production systems rely on tight global value chains. These value chains in turn rely on frictionless international trade and stable transport networks. Unfortunately, the same transport networks may potentially also facilitate the global transmission of diseases. Hence, it comes as no surprise that transport and travel restrictions have been an important part of the policy response to the COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, these measures have directly affected trade in goods and services. They have disrupted freight transport, business travel and global value chains by causing delays of shipments and by increasing trade costs.


JEL Classification

Key Words

  • container shipping network
  • Covid-19 pandemic
  • port restrictions