Climate wealth borrowing by countries since 1950


  • Wilfried Rickels
  • Felix Meier
Publication Date

An integrated assessment model calibrated on past economic and climate development is used to estimate the historical time-series of the social costs of carbon from 1950 to 2018. The extent to which individual countries reduced global wealth through their fossil and industrial-process carbon dioxide emissions was then assessed.

Kiel Institute Experts

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