Policy Article

Challenges of a changing business environment


  • Sandkamp
  • A.
Publication Date

Ever since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic in the winter of 2019/2020, both business and politics have been in crisis mode. On top of the dramatic loss of human life, the pandemic has caused a severe economic downturn.

In 2020, GDP in Slovenia fell by 4.3 percent. The country thus performed better than the EU average, which experienced a 5.9 percent decline in GDP. In February 2022, hopes of a lasting recovery were crushed by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the energy crisis accompanying it....

Kiel Institute Expert


JEL Classification
F11, F13, F17

Key Words

  • China
  • Europe
  • Germany
  • Global Value Chains
  • globalization
  • international trade
  • non-tariff trade barriers
  • Russia
  • Sanctions
  • Ukraine-Krieg
  • USA