The U.S. has become by far the top supporter of Ukraine with its latest aid pledges. European support pledges to the Russian-attacked country have been growing more modestly recently, according to data collected in the Ukraine Support Tracker. The already strikingly high commitment of Eastern European countries becomes even more obvious when costs for refugees are taken into account.
The U.S. has more than tripled its publicly known commitments to Ukraine since the previous Ukraine Support Tracker data update on April 23. The reason is the second Ukraine Supplemental Act, which has passed the U.S. House of Representatives and is currently up for a vote in the Senate. In total, the U.S. have now announced 43 billion euros in bilateral military, financial, or humanitarian support between Jan. 24 and May 10, 2022. In contrast, EU countries have made only comparatively small new commitments in recent weeks. The Ukraine Support Tracker by the Kiel Institute for the World Economy systematically tracks the value of government support announced by 37 countries to Ukraine.
“The U.S. government is willing to mobilize substantial resources to strengthen Ukraine. This shows the importance it attaches to this conflict, which threatens the stability of Europe,” says Christoph Trebesch, research director at Kiel Institute and responsible for the Ukraine Support Tracker. “EU countries and EU institutions have committed 16 billion euros, only about one-third of what the U.S. has pledged. This large discrepancy is surprising. One might expect the EU to help a neighboring country at least to a similar level as the distant United States. But EU countries have been moving much more slowly for weeks, not only in arms deliveries, but also in financial and humanitarian assistance.”
In relation to their economic output (gross domestic product, GDP), Estonia, Latvia, and Poland remain Ukraine's biggest supporters—now followed by the U.S. in fourth place. Germany ranks 14th with pledges amounting to 0.06 percent of GDP, its lowest ranking so far compared to March and April.
A new addition with this update is a quantification of government support to refugees. “Rightly, some countries point to the high cost of hosting refugees from Ukraine. However, these expenditures are very difficult to measure and to compare internationally. Nevertheless, we attempt to do so on the basis of rough estimates. According to these, Poland, Romania, and Hungary bear the greatest burdens. The cost of refugees in Poland alone could be between two and six billion euros in the period we consider, depending on the cost per month and refugee. Assuming a figure of 500 euros per month per refugee, Poland is Ukraine's second-largest supporter in absolute terms behind the United States,” says Trebesch.
About the Ukraine Support Tracker
The Ukraine Support Tracker lists and quantifies military, financial and humanitarian aid pledged to Ukraine since January 24, 2022 (currently through May 10, 2022). This new update covers 37 countries, specifically the EU member states, other members of the G7, as well as the newly added countries of Australia, South Korea, Turkey, Norway, New Zealand, and Switzerland. Also, EU institutions are included as a separate donor. The tracker lists government-to-government commitments; private donations or those from international organizations such as the IMF are not included in the main database. Flows going into other countries like, for example, Moldova, are not included.
With regard to sources, the database combines official government sources with information from international media. Aid provided in kind, such as medical supplies, food, or military equipment, is quantified on the basis of market prices or information from previous crises involving government aid. In case of doubt, upper bounds of prices are used.
More information and data can be found on this webpage: Ukraine Support Tracker