Journal Article

Low Bone Mineral Density, a Neglected Condition in North Africa and Middle East: Estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study, 1990–2019


  • Rashidi
  • M.-M.
  • Saeedi Moghaddam
  • S.
  • Azadnajafabad
  • S.
  • Heidari-Foroozan
  • M.
  • Hashemi
  • S.M.
  • Mohammadi
  • E.
  • Esfahani
  • Z.
  • Ebrahimi
  • N.
  • Shobeiri
  • P.
  • Malekpour
  • M.-R.
  • Abbasi-Kangevari
  • M.
  • Rashedi
  • S.
  • Fateh
  • S.M.
  • Larijani
  • B.
  • Farzadfar
  • F.
Publication Date

Summary: Due to the high prevalence of low bone mineral density in North Africa and Middle East region, estimating its attributable burden would help to a better understanding of this neglected condition for policymakers and health researchers. This study presented the number of attributable deaths has doubled from 1990 to 2019.

Purpose: This study provides the latest estimates of the burden of low bone mineral density (BMD) from 1990 to 2019 in North Africa and Middle East (NAME) region.

Methods: The data were extracted from the global burden of disease (GBD) 2019 study to estimate epidemiological indices such as deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and summary exposure value (SEV). SEV is a measure of the exposure of the population to a risk factor that considers the amount of exposure by the level of risk.

Results: Our findings showed that in 1990–2019, the number of deaths and DALYs attributable to low BMD had almost doubled in the region and caused 20,371 (95% uncertainty intervals: 14,848–24,374) deaths and 805,959 (630,238–959,581) DALYs in 2019. However, DALYs and death rates showed a decreasing trend after age standardization. Saudi Arabia had the highest, and Lebanon had the lowest age-standardized DALYs rates in 2019, with rates of 434.2 (329.6–534.3) and 90.3 (70.6–112.1) per 100,000, respectively. The highest burden attributable to low BMD was in the 90–94 and over 95 age groups. Also, there was a decreasing trend in age-standardized SEV to low BMD for both sexes.

Conclusion: Despite the decreasing trend of age-standardized burden indices, considerable amounts of deaths and DALYs were attributable to low BMD, especially in the elderly population, in the region in 2019. As the positive effects of proper interventions will be detectable in the long term, robust strategies and comprehensive stable policies are the ultimate solutions to achieving desired goals.

Kiel Institute Expert

Key Words

  • Bone Fracture
  • Burden
  • Low Bone Mineral Density
  • North Africa and Middle East
  • Osteoporosis
  • Public Health
  • Risk Factor

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