Our report identifies the key factors driving a sustainable future fish supply. It also highlights that consistent changes are required in the fishing industry and in its administration to ensure that the worldwide problems of hunger and poverty do not continue well into the future. That would be contrary to the commitments set out in the United Nations plan of action for the future: ending hunger and poverty by 2030 are two of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). To achieve these goals, fishery management, amongst other things, must be improved significantly everywhere. Apart from bad management, fish stocks also suffer from the effects of climate change as well as the pollution and destruction of their habitats. Investment in improved fishery management, in sustainable aquaculture, in the protection of vital marine habitats and in fair trade policies would restore the productivity of our seas and pay off for billions of people in developing countries. Our results clearly show that the world’s growing population must not serve as an excuse for even more reckless exploitation of our seas. In fact, the solution to these problems can be achieved by implementing and enforcing ecosystem-based and sustainable fishery management. In addition, fair access rights and prices must be guaranteed. An increasing supply of sustainably produced, fair trade fish is not merely intended to ease the conscience of European consumers; it must also benefit fishermen and fish farmers in developing countries with measurable effects.