The growing use and development of the Internet is a hallmark of modern information society. The associated reduction in spatial transaction costs and the acceleration of economic processes are changing intra-regional division of labor and the existing hierarchy between traditional and emerging regions. Effects on the spatial structure of production, distribution of goods, settlements and housing will follow. The changes in the spatial and settlement structures were the focus of a research project of the Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW) for the Wüstenrot Foundation. The resulting report was supplemented at an interdisciplinary conference by specific scientific lectures by well-known experts.