The new wave of regionalism in Latin America amounts to more than just old wine in new bottles. Yet the economic effects of regional integration are likely to fall short of Latin American expectations. The development of foreign direct investment in Latin America in the 1990s reveals that regional integration is neither necessary nor sufficient for improving locational attractiveness. Exports of Latin American integration schemes frequently continue to lack international competitiveness. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether Latin America's trade relations with Europe can be strengthened significantly by concluding interregional agreements on trade preferences.