Journal Article

The Transition of Corruption: From Poverty to Honesty

Economics Letters

Prehistoric measures of biogeography are used as instruments for modern income levels. We find that our instrumented incomes explain the cross-country pattern of corruption just as well as actual incomes, so the long-run causality appears to be entirely from income to corruption.


Erich Gundlach
Martin Paldam


Publication Date
JEL Classification
B25, O1