The goal of this chapter is to summarize the state of the art in research in international trade and global production, and discuss issues relevant to European policymakers. Much of recent research on globalization is primarily empirical, owing to the proliferation of available data. We begin by discussing recent advances in measuring the causes and effects of globalization, and discussing the particular data challenges that have emerged. We then turn to theories of trade and global production, first summarizing the conclusions on which there is a broad consensus in the field. We discuss new insights that may be relevant for policy-makers, and open research questions.