The ocean regulates the global climate, provides humans with natural resources such as food, raw materials, and energy, and is essential for international trade and recreational and cultural activities. However, pressures resulting from overfishing, increasing resource extraction, various sources of pollution, and alterations to coastal zones and ecosystems constitute serious threats for ocean health and sustainability. Despite these threats, approaches to achieving more sustainable utilization of ocean resources and services are still rare, and a comprehensive understanding and assessment of the various oceanic factors influencing human wealth has not been established. In particular, we analyze
- how oceanic carbon uptake can be accounted for in international emission trading and accelerated to achieve net negative emissions,
- how progress against Sustainable Development Goal 14 (Ocean and Coast) can be achieved and monitored,
- how the contribution of oceanic resources and services to human wealth can be measured and reflected in national accounts, and
- how international cooperation and effective governance to protect the marine environment can be achieved.
The research in this theme takes place in close collaboration with the interdisciplinary Cluster of Excellence “The Future Ocean”.