William H. Overholt, Ph.D. (Harvard Kennedy School)
China’s success has made its economy and polity so complex that continued success requires transformation. China is struggling with the needed transition. The Chinese social system has great strengths. For instance, through 2015 the number of Chinese families who owned homes was double the number of Indian families with access to a toilet. But Xi Jinping’s emphasis on political control has overwhelmed economic reform. That same emphasis on political control has turned the Communist Party from a vanguard party into an interest group, with serious long-term consequences.