This article extends the methodological toolbox of measures of regional concentration of industries and industrial specialization of regions. It first defines disproportionality measures of concentration and specialization and proposes a taxonomy of these measures. This taxonomy is based on three characteristic features of any disproportionality measure. It helps researchers define the measure that fits their research purpose and data best. The article then generalizes this taxonomy to cover disproportionality measures of economic localization that evaluate specialization and concentration simultaneously and spatial disproportionality measures that deal with the checkerboard problem and the modifiable areal unit problem.